Archive for: June, 2023

Top 5 Valentine’s Day Jewelry Gift Ideas & Creative Ways To Present Them

Jun 30 2023 Published by admin under Uncategorized

On February 14, couples around the nation celebrate their affection for one another through romantic dinners, gift exchanges and sharing special moments together. If you are wondering what to purchase for the woman in your life this Valentine’s Day, you can’t go wrong with the gift of jewelry. If you want to enjoy the current jewelry trend of diamonds set in platinum but don’t quite have the means to afford it, consider purchasing cubic zirconia set in sterling silver instead. A cubic zirconia stone is flawless, whereas a genuine diamond is often visibly included. And when it comes to metal, platinum is the most expensive of all while sterling silver remains very affordable. Translation? You can get a lot more dazzle for your dough and still give a quality gift that any woman will be thrilled to receive in cubic zirconia and sterling silver.

5 Popular Valentine’s Day Jewelry Gift Ideas

Cubic zirconia wedding rings. Valentine’s Day is a very popular day for wedding proposals, which means cubic zirconia wedding rings are a hot pick this season. Even if you can afford a genuine diamond engagement ring, it may be more practical to consider purchasing the world’s finest diamond simulant in a cubic zirconia wedding ring set and use the money that you save for a down payment on a new home. Cubic zirconia wedding rings will give you the look of a large diamond, will be eyeclean and much less expensive than the real thing. If you want to present a cubic zirconia engagement ring to your sweetheart this Valentine’s Day, consider tying the ring onto a ribbon, which is affixed to a rose, a box of candy or a teddy bear. If you want to get especially creative, you can sprinkle rose petals into the shape of a trail that leads to a room filled with soft candlelight and a ring box as the focal point.

Cubic zirconia bracelets. A tennis bracelet is always classic, but the look of a bangle is coming back into fashion in a big way. Cubic zirconia bracelets in either the tennis or bangle styling will make a perfect gift this Valentine’s Day. You can present a bracelet by placing it on a teddy bear’s wrist or draping it over a wine bottle.

Cubic zirconia heart pendant/necklace. This is one of the more popular jewelry gift ideas because a heart symbolizes love and, coincidentally, that’s what Valentine’s Day is all about. From the traditional heart pendant to a floating style, there is no better gift than a heart to show your love. If you are giving someone special a cubic zirconia heart pendant or necklace on Valentine’s Day, simply place the necklace onto the neck of a large teddy bear or place the jewelry box inside of a box filled with long-stemmed roses.

Cubic zirconia earrings. Many women simply won’t leave home without them, which is why earrings make a terrific gift idea for the upcoming Valentine’s Day. Some of the most classic designs include both stud and hoop style cubic zirconia earrings, but heart designs remain equally popular and especially so on a day for celebrating love. Cubic zirconia earrings, especially in the solitaire stud style, will offer a bigger bling for your buck.

Cubic zirconia eternity band rings. Although they have always been popular, eternity bands are especially popular as Valentine’s Day gifts because they symbolize forever. What better symbol to give someone that you love than a promise of eternity? It is said that the continuous gems in an eternity band ring symbolize no beginning and no end, which is the way that many people feel about the love that they have for another. An eternity band ring can be presented in a number of ways. Much like other types of Valentine’s Day jewelry, you can tie a cubic zirconia eternity band ring to a ribbon, which can be placed on a rose, a teddy bear or a box of Valentine’s Day candy. If you want to get really creative, purchase a box of candy and remove enough of the candies inside to fit your ring box snugly in the center. When your valentine opens the box expecting to see chocolates, she will love the surprise.

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Arthritis Symptom Presentation Varies With Disease Type

Jun 30 2023 Published by admin under Uncategorized

Many people think of arthritis as a disease of the elderly. Creaking bones, slow gaits and gnarled fingers are what come to mind when a list of arthritis symptom possibilities is presented. The fact is the disease is actually known for a multitude of symptoms and these may vary depending on the type of arthritis present.

There are two major forms of arthritis and many other less prevalent forms, as well. The two most common types of arthritis are osteo and rheumatoid. Each tends to present with its own brand of arthritis symptom possibilities along with several they share in common. Let’s look at both types and the typical symptoms that go along with them.

Osteoarthritis is a progressive disease that tends to strike later in life. In this particular form of the disease, the arthritis symptom possibilities can range quite dramatically from patient to patient, but one thing that is shared in all cases is pain, or at least discomfort. This form of arthritis doesn’t have a definitive known cause, but it is believed it can be brought on by genetic defects, overuse, age, diabetes and a host of other possible reasons. This particular form of arthritis tends to impact the joint cartilage that lines the bone within the joint.

The arthritis symptom possibilities for this type of the disease include such things as inflammation, pain, loss of movement, bony growths and more. In severe cases, the cartilage can break down almost entirely, removing the body’s natural shock absorption system and creating a great deal of pain.

While the arthritis symptom possibilities will vary in this form from person to person, the impact of the disease is generally pretty strong. This form of arthritis affects about 20 million people in the United States alone.

The second major form of arthritis is rheumatoid. This, too, has no definitive cause, but is believed to be brought on by such things as heredity, hormones and even infection. The arthritis symptom possibilities in this form of the disease tend to be a little more broad, which makes it quite difficult to diagnosis initially.

In rheumatoid arthritis, the body’s own immune system decides to attack and destroy the tissues in the joints. The arthritis symptom possibilities here are so wide because this form of the disease involves the immune system.

The typical arthritis symptom possibilities in rheumatoid include such things as swollen, stiff and painful joints, fevers, loss of use and even deformity in severe cases. Rheumatoid can also create arthritis symptom event in other areas of the body including the lungs, heart and eyes. Considering its more holistic attack on the body, this particular form of the disease is also known for making people feel very tired and generally ill overall.

Dealing with either form of the disease can be very difficult for patients to contend with. Generally doctors will attempt to address each arthritis symptom as it arises, which is considered a pretty good approach. Since neither form of the disease has a known cure, this is perhaps the best way to manage overall pain by handling treatment on a need-to basis. The best way for a person with different arthritis symptom possibilities to handle them is as they arise, while making sure a doctor is consulted for new therapies when they are needed.

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Presenting an Online Gift Certificate As a Grand Surprise

Jun 30 2023 Published by admin under Uncategorized

With birthdays and celebrations upon us, we will all scramble to find a quality gift for our friends and loved ones. Of course, no one wishes to receive a gift that is categorized as generic (the dreaded gift of black socks from childhood) so we all aspire to purchase (and give) a gift that will be well received. This is why an online gift certificate is an excellent choice as a gift.

A gift certificate is an often misunderstood choice of a gift item. The reason for this is because most people do not see a gift certificate as a “grand” gift that involves a lot of thought. In short, it would seem that such a gift was presented as an afterthought and not as something that required a great deal of planning, preparation and thought. This is an unfortunate categorization of an online gift certificate, as it is an item that actually reflects the thought process of a logical person who realized the practicality of such a gift. Why is the common gift certificate a logical and practical gift?

While we realize that if a person has a very strong interest in a specific hobby or pursuit that the person will be highly appreciative of a gift that is in concert with such interest, it is also very difficult to properly pick a gift that the person does not already have.

For example, if the person whom the gift is intended is a huge fan of THE BEATLES, such a person would surely love an item or piece of memorabilia that is connected with THE BEATLES, unless the person presenting the gift has an itemized list of the BEATLES memorabilia that the person for whom the gift is intended already has, then the possibility of buying the individual of duplicate of the same item is a major risk. This is why the purchase of a gift certificate is wise.

In short, the gift certificate skims over the problems that might occur with trying to second guess the person whom the gift is intended and presents a doorway to the type of store where the person would be able to find those items that he wishes. In other words, instead of trying to pinpoint a specific BEATLES item, it would be best to purchase an online gift certificate to a store that supplies BEATLES merchandise.

This way, the person whom the gift is intended will be able to purchase the specific item that he or she wants and the embarrassing issue of purchasing a gift that is not wanted can be avoided. The person for whom the gift is intended is the best judge of what makes a good gift. Why take the decision making power away from him?

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The Risk of the Bird Flu is Still Present Among Us

Jun 30 2023 Published by admin under Uncategorized

Public health authorities are alarmed by a strain of H5N1, also known as the virus of the bird flu, which has firs affected the birds across Asia and Russia. It also has infected more than 100 humans in the past 18 months, killing about half of them. Scientists fear that the virus could begin to spread between humans and so this will unleash a global pandemic.

At the annual regional meeting of the World Health Organization in Auckland, New Zealand, among other top items presented, it is expected to be discussed the H5N1 strain of bird flu.

The spokesman of WHO declared that even though the cold months in Asia might reduce the damage produced by the disease, the risk factors will remain the same.

Richard Nesbit, the acting regional director for the Western Pacific of WHO sustained that the pandemic risk is still present because the virus is highly embedded in the environment. Besides the continuous outbreaks in poultry in Indonesia, now there have appeared new cases in Cambodia and Thailand too.

By this moment all the cases when humans were taken ill appeared due to a close contact with infected poultry, but some special cases, like the one when a whole family (seven members) died because the members spread the disease to one another, have warned the scientists about the possibility that the disease could mutate and then transmit easier between humans, leading to a global pandemic.

Richard Nesbit said that there is hope that we will gain control over the disease, and gave as example the case of Vietnam that had 42 people deceased of bird flu (this situating the country in the chart of victims on the second place after Indonesia with 49 dead people), and after the government’s campaign regarding a mass vaccination of poultry there were not recorded any new fatalities.

Nesbit also affirmed that it is very important for people to be prepared, not taken by surprise, and not to forget what had happened, even though there have past three years of bird flu presence, because the risk is still present.

Even though the media and the public got tired of hearing the same old thing about a possible global pandemic, it is the scientist’s and government’s responsibility to continue informing everyone about the evolution of the virus and of the possible risks related to it.

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What Are The Best Acne Treatment Methods Available Presently?

Jun 30 2023 Published by admin under Uncategorized

With today’s medical advances, we are being presented with many methods to deal with acne problems. With such a myriad of solutions available to us, frankly it can be quite confusing to the layman. To help us understand this issue more, let us look at the different methods for the treatment of acne if your acne is not responding to over the counter (OTC) medications.

First, it would be wise to visit your local GP. If after two months the acne still does not seem to be improving, ask for a referral to a dermatologist. Treatments for acne differ in various countries and what is acceptable in one may not be available in another.

One of the most common treatments for acne is an antibiotic like tetracycline. This will kill the bacteria present in the blocked hair follicle, thus reducing the inflammation. It may need to be taken for some months, but is considered quite safe.

The acne can also be treated externally by using erythromycin or benzoyl peroxide. While this reduces the bacteria causing the problem, it is really treating the symptoms rather than the cause. That is, the oil secretion and abnormal cell behaviour that blocks the follicle in the first place. So unfortunately, the acne will usually reappear within some weeks of the treatment being stopped.

The best thing to do is to reduce the amount of oil being secreted, and this can be accomplished by taking Vitamin A derivatives (marketed as Accutane). There are many harsh side effects, such as nosebleeds and dry skin with this treatment, so it must be done under the close supervision of the dermatologist. On the good side, over 80% of patients are permanently cured of acne. It was once thought that liver damage and depression could occur, but this is unsubstantiated. Birth defects can occur if taken by pregnant women, but the patient also taking the contraceptive pill before beginning the treatment avoids this.

Exfoliating the skin is another treatment widely used in controlling acne. A chemical exfoliating agent such as salicylic acid or glycolic acid is used as a topical application to encourage the top layer of skin to peel off. This is not as horrible as it sounds, as only a microscopic layer dissolves. The same effect can also be accomplished by the use of an abrasive cloth or liquid scrub.

Sometimes, the contraceptive pill is prescribed for the control of acne. A combined oestrogen or progestogen pill (marketed as Diane) is the most effective and now there is a new one on the market though it may not be available in the USA which has fewer side effects.

Photosynthesis is yet another treatment. Sunlight has been used for a short term aid in the past. Now it has been found that intense blue light produced by specially made fluorescent tubes is far more efficient. Yoram Harth and Alan Shalita have conducted extensive tests and trials with this method and found it can reduce the inflamed lesions by 60 to 70% in about four weeks of treatment. It works best if the acne is mild to moderate and has no side effects.

Before you do anything for your can problems, please consult your doctor for each of the treatment. You may not be aware of some medical complications that may arise. Your present medical condition may prohibit you from some treatments. It may be wise for you to read more before you proceed with these treatments used to control and cure acne.

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Engagement Presents & Proper Manners

Jun 14 2023 Published by admin under Uncategorized

Have you ever wondered if engagement presents are customary and acceptable?Well, the giving of engagement presents by anyone other than Mark to Caroline is not customary and should not be encouraged. It is entirely a matter of personal inclination but certainly the parents and immediate families of Caroline and Mark are usually the only ones to give Caroline such presents (other than her fiance). If they are given, it should be only at a small, informal engagement announcement party where only the immediate families and close relatives are present.

And if Caroline and Mark exchange engagement presents, what is appropriate?

Since the engagement present from Mark is, traditionally, the engagement ring, any other present he gives Caroline, as well as any she gives him, should be selected for sentimental, keepsake reasons, and their choice governed by the most conventional good taste. Simple jewellery, precious or costume, furs (but never a fur coat), hand bags, luggage cases, books, are all appropriate for Caroline, and she could give Mark, with equal propriety, a cigarette case, ring, etc. But anything remotely classified as wearing apparel, intimate or utilitarian, automobiles, furniture, etc., are unreservedly taboo. If engagement gifts are made at all, they should be not too elaborate and not too intimate.

How should engagement presents be acknowledged? Caroline must send thank-you notes (hand-written on personal writing paper) to everyone from whom she receives a present (except Mark!). These notes should be mailed right after the present is received, and should be sent even though she has thanked the giver verbally.

Have you ever wondered how to use the terms Fiance or Fiancee. When Caroline and Mark have occasion to speak of the other what form do they use? In speaking of each other to friends or relatives, use the first name: “Caroline,” “Mark;” to strangers say “my fiancee,” “my fiance.”

Now what about Long Engagements? In the case of a long engagement, when Caroline and Mark must be separated, is it permissible for each to attend social events? Yes, provided they conduct themselves carefully, with strict observance of conventions.

Are there any rules about Manners for Engaged Couples?

Is there any relaxing of conventions for engaged couples? An engaged couple observes the same rules of propriety that are socially acceptable for any single man or woman. They do not stay overnight together under one roof unless some older person is also in the house. They may travel unchaperoned on the same plane, or train, or aboard the same ship, even though the trip is overnight: with separate berths. They would not be likely to travel in an automobile alone on an overnight trip. Good judgment and good taste will guide them correctly.

Engaged couples should watch their manners in public and reserve any demonstration of affection for each other for private moments.

And what about a broken engagement? How should you deal with that? What is the correct procedure when an engagement is broken? If an announcement has already appeared in the newspapers, a second notice should be sent announcing that the engagement has been broken.

Legally, the engagement ring belongs to the bride. Most people agree that a bride shows better taste to return it and any presents given her by the groom, if the engagement is called off. Should he ask her to keep the ring, she naturally wears it on her right hand from then on or possibly has the setting changed. In the event of a fiancees death, an heirloom engagement ring, or any other heirloom should be returned to his mother (or family) unless the girl is specifically asked to keep it. An engagement ring not an heirloom, or other presents from her fiance, need not be returned.
Note: A girl should realize that engagement means “intention to marry” on the part of two people and that when one or the other of the two discovers that he or she can no longer go ahead with this “intention” with a whole heart, there is no disgrace involved. It is much better to break an engagement than to proceed with doubt. A broken engagement is easier to heal than a divorce later.

What about if the Father’s Approval Is refused. What is the procedure if Caroline’s father disapproves of the marriage?

First, Caroline must decide whether she will disregard his wishes and marry anyway. If she decides to marry, the wedding will have to be informal, sponsored by another relative, or by herself. Although quiet, her wedding may still be beautiful, a memory to cherish through her years of married life.

Note: While in an earlier day a father, upon refusing consent to the marriage, might forbid the mother and other members of the immediate family to attend the wedding if his daughter disregarded his “commands,” now the disapproving parents usually attend the wedding, at least.

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Lead Generation and Appointment Generation Presentation – Points to Consider

Jun 13 2023 Published by admin under Uncategorized

So… you have a referral or have been given a lead, what’s your next step? Dial the phone, of course! But wait, before you can dial, you need to be prepared. Take a breath and think about what you want to say.

A call to set up an appointment has the same elements of a sales call. The big difference is that instead of product and money changing hands, the sales person is asking for time and a willingness to listen. The other major difference is unwillingness on the part of the sales person to fully disclose all the details of the offer.

In order to have a successful appointment generating call, you must prepare for it the same way you would for a sales presentation. You create an opening, your offer, be prepared for objections and concerns, and your close.

Points to consider:

As this is likely a cold call, make sure you’ve made your caller comfortable. I like to start my calls by briefly introducing myself and my company and following up with a phrase like “I know you’re busy, I won’t keep you long.” This lets people know that you’re not planning on keeping them on the phone for an extended period of time. Notice I didn’t make that a question. A question such as “do you have time to talk?” at that point of the conversation makes it easy for someone to end the conversation before you’ve had the chance to explain what you are calling about. Trust me, if they don’t really have the time, they’ll tell you.

Keep sight of your objective. If your objective is to meet face to face, it’s wise not to give away everything in your call. For example, you might need to give a price range, but tell them at “the exact price will depend on your specific needs. I’d like to stop by for about 30 minutes or less and learn more about your needs. Would Tuesday or Thursday be more convenient for you?”

If you’ve been referred by someone mention this up front. I might say “Hi, this is Jo Ann Kirby at KRG Communications Group. John Manners suggested I speak with you. I know you’re busy, I won’t keep you long. John felt that…” and then I continue with my call.

Ask qualifying questions. Don’t waste someone’s time with an appointment if your product or service is not a good fit. Get a feel upfront about the customer’s needs. On the other hand, if you know this will be a good fit but the customer is balking at an appointment, don’t be afraid to delve deeper during your call. It’s OK to attempt to overcome initial objections.

Remember lead and appointment setting are selling activities, using many of the same skills as a full sales call. So, keep in mind that we don’t want to don’t push so hard that your appointment will cancel once the prospective customer thinks it over. Talking someone into an appointment for something that’s not a good fit, will only waste their time and yours. Make it a call back.

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Staying Present

Jun 12 2023 Published by admin under Uncategorized

With all that has happened lately, it’s more emotionally taxing than ever to handle the punches and roll with them as they come. How many times has it felt as though the rug has been taking right out from under you. It’s all you can do to function, let alone handle the additional circumstances that may follow. Whether it’s a Natural disaster, a loss of a loved one, a divorce or being laid-off, these life challenges can be more than overwhelming. In the midst of this, learning to take a moment to literally, “Get Present”, realizing what we can and can’t control and adjusting accordingly.

I tell my clients this becomes a skill set that we hone in on from the first moment that we are faced with any form of adversity. Learning coping mechanisms, reaching out for help from close family and friends is crucial in this moment. Start by connecting with your breath, realizing what you can and cannot control, and then devising a plan to contribute to a solution if there is one.

In the midst of the storm, the tragedy, the hurt, the pain, the loss. we are blinded by our pain. Take time to notice how and what you feel in your body. Shift from a place of fear, to a place of faith. Reminding ourselves that these two emotions cannot be present at the same time. Holding on to that thought. AGAIN, skillset. Reminding those around us to remain positive. Look for wise, intelligent options to things that are in our control. Ask for help when needed. Most importantly, remember that stress causes disease in our bodies. We choose what we hold onto. Staying in a beautiful space in your heart. Praying or sending a positive vision to loved ones in need, and believing there’s an end to the storm.

Keeping a strong vision of better times ahead. Remind yourself the more we focus on, the more we get of that. Staying positive can be incredibly trying through devastation. Surround yourself around positive people who believe in the same things you do. Having a strong support system when you’re struggling is ideal. It takes time to weed out those that may be toxic for you, draining you of your innate positive energy. Take a step each day that makes you feel you are contributing to a better tomorrow. Eventually, that’s what it will be.

Wishing you all peace in your heart, wisdom in your soul and strength and faith in your spirit.

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The Status of Fourah Bay College Library Since Its Inception to Present Moment

Jun 11 2023 Published by admin under Uncategorized


Fourah Bay College library came into existence in 1827 and it was affiliated with Durham in 1876. This affiliation scheme enlarged the college regulations, and as a result of this, new phases of development were introduced and included in the improvement in the condition of the library. Its first Board of Curators was appointed and a regular supply of standard newspapers and other publications were provided. Professor Richards was appointed Librarian-In-Charge with Mr. T. Taylor as Library Assistant.


Fourah bay College Library management was virtually established, and attracted valuable donations such as a special collection donated in 1881 by Rev. H. Wright who served as Honorary Secretary to the Church Missionary Society. Later in 1917 Bishop James Johnson bequeathed his set of 24 volumes of the Encyclopedia Britannica to the College Library.

During the World War II period, that is 1939-1945, little was done about the development of the College Library. By then the library was located at Mabang, and continued to maintain a library which was originally intended to be an Agricultural College. The College had few teachers and a small student population of about twenty students. The conditions of the war in the 1940′s caused the library to be managed by student librarians. The library was generally faced with lack of resources in the war years. In those years the library minimal collections consisted mainly of theological and literary works which was transferred to Mount Aureol. The materials was housed in several buildings such as the student dining hall, the college Chapel, the College Bookshop, stores and Games and Sports Office.

The library facilities of the college at this stage formed part of the higher education development programme. The most area of priority at Fourah Bay college was the development of Library. With the establishment of a stable information Centre, Fourah Bay College became an attractive venue for foreign funds. In 1954, following a visit to the Fulton Commission which improved the status of the college, the library was awarded a grant of $8,000 by the Carnegie Corporation of New York, to be used for the purchase of essential reference and bibliographic materials. The British complemented this donation in 1955 with a grant of £15,000 from the Colonial Development Welfare Funds. Two-thirds of those donations (£10,000) were spent on books and periodicals and the rest on equipment. These grants and other donations led to an accelerated growth of the library and formed the foundation of a steady development during the 60s. It was at this critecal period that the library was assigned its rightful position as a priority affiliated college of the University of Durham.

In 1961, the second expatriate Mr. R.S. Burkett, relinquished his appointment as College Librarian after a period of four and the half years. The third expatriate librarian, the late Mr. Michael Jollife (after whom the library has been named), was appointed in 1961. He was initially concerned with the improvement of the physical facilities of the library. In 1968, the college received full university status and with this elevation, the library also played leadership role in the development of other librarians in Sierra Leone. Within the library itself, Mr. Jollife established the Reprographic and Micrographic sections. In his 1961/1962 annual report, Mr. Jollife decided to the provide funds under the British Technical Assistance Programme for the purchase of bindery equipment and Mr. W.J Askew, a British Book Binder was assigned this responsibility. He arrived in Sierra Leone in August 15, 1964. By then, there were ten thousand (10,000) books and periodicals for binding and rebinding. Mr. S.T Browne, a Sierra Leonean craftsman succeeded Mr. Askew after his three years tenure in April 1966 as Head Book Binder. Currently, the Bindery is headed by Mr. Patrick James. At the end of March, 1970, Mr. Michael Jollife resigned his post to become Librarian at Royal Halloway College, London and was succeeded by A.C. Butler who arrived in 1971. Thus, Mrs. Gladys Jusu-Sheriff was the first Sierra Leonean College Librarian after Mr. Butler left in 1972.

Fourah Bay College administration reacted to an acute shortage of library personnel in that period, and instituted a course for the City and Guilds of London Assistant Certificate jointly organised by the college library and the Extra-Mural Department. Deficiencies in the library certificate provided an apparent long-term need for a library course in Sierra Leone. This programme was a junior assistant’s qualification which was purely western system of library management and there was an evident gap between the City of Guilds and the ALA. There was a need to institute a programme locally to provide an intermediate qualification to bridge the gap between the junior clerical level staff and full professionals. This brought about the response for the formation of the Institute of Library, Archive and Information Studies in 1986 through the dynamic leadership of Mrs. Gladys Jusu-Sheriff who eventually became the first director. In November 1999 the Institute was merged with the Mass Communication unit within the Faculty of Arts to form the Institute of Library, Information and Communication Studies (INSLICS) offering certificate, diploma, degree and postgraduate qualifications.

The late Mrs. Deanna Thomas succeeded Mrs. Gladys Jusu-Sheriff as librarian of Fourah Bay College library in 1990 but traveled out of the country in June 1997 during the interregnum of Freetown. Mr. Oliver Harding acted as librarian in her absence until June 1998 when a more senior officer in the University of Sierra Leone, the late Prof. L.N. M’Jamtu-Sie the then librarian of College of Medicine and Allied Health Sciences (COMAHS) was appointed to supervise activities in the library. She resigned in January 2005 and returned to COMAHS. Mr. Donald Davies acted until August 2005 and was succeeded in an acting capacity by Rev. Oliver Harding who returned to Sierra Leone from Nigeria after he obtained a second master degree in Biblical Studies from West Africa Theological Seminary, Lagos (an affiliate of the University of Nigeria, Nsukka). He is still the current Acting Librarian at Fourah Bay College Library with only twenty-nine(29) staff. Of the twenty-nine staff, only eight(8) are professionals. This indeed is a big setback to Fourah Bay College Library which needs to be rectified.

Currently the library consists of a four-storey building composed of the following sections: The lower ground floor consists of the Bindery and the Sierra Leone Collection. The Ground Floor consists of the Reception Desk, Librarian’s Office, Issue Desk, Cataloguing Department and General Reference collection, photocopying room, the American Shelves and the United Nations Collection. The first floor is the Periodicals/Serials Collection, while the second floor represent the lending collection or the textbook collection and the third floor which originally housed lending library matarials is currently not functioning due to licking roof of the building.

The following are the various sections in the library and their functions:

  • Librarian’s Office & Acquisitions Department;
  • Cataloguing Department;
  • Issue Desk;
  • Textbook Collection;
  • Periodicals Department;
  • Sierra Leone Collection;
  • United Nations Collection;
  • The American Shelves/Corner; and
  • The Bindery

The first section is the Librarian’s Office which generally controls all other areas in the library. The office also serves as the Acquisition’s Department. This is where selection of library materials is done. Lecturers are encouraged to make selection of materials to be acquired for their use. Once the selection is made and bibliographic data are scrutinised, the stock of the library to avoid unnecessary duplication of orders is checked. These materials are sent to the library, and their details are checked against those of the order slips following these materials which are accessioned before passing them over to the Cataloguing Department. There is also availability of audiovisual equipment such as projector which the librarian uses during orientation programmes and also used to conduct lectures.

Library materials on receipt from the Librarian’s office/Acquisitions Department are classified and catalogued in the second section. This second section is not within sight or it is out of bounds. The organisation of materials into a set pattern of classes facilitates the arrangement of these materials on the appropriate shelves with materials on specific subjects being housed together in the same area of the library. The excellence of the Catalogue is the pride of the library because once a material is wrongly classified and shelved, it does not stay with members of its class and in some cases, it is like a lost material. Fourah Bay College library currently utilise the 23rd edition of the Dewey Decimal Classification Scheme and the AACR2 (Anglo American Cataloguing Rules 2).

The third section is also called the Circulations Department where materials that go out on loan are charged to patrons and discharged on return to the library. Information about materials not found on the shelves could be retrieved from the Circulations Section. Shelving arrangements are also under the supervision of the Circulations Section staff. This section also process and issue students library cards.

The forth section is currently the most heavily used section in Fourah Bay College library. It is a closed access collection. This means that materials are not directly available to readers but issued out upon request. Materials in this section cover varied disciplines based on the curriculum of the college. This collection also houses past examination papers of courses taken on campus. Messengers from the library are sent to examination halls with a formal letter from the Librarian requesting copies of examination papers from invigilators. These are eventually sorted out and sent to the bindery department to be bound into volumes.

The fifth section is also called the Journal/Serials Section. It houses quarterly, bi-quarterly, annually, semi-annually publications. These are publications of several volumes which come about at regular intervals and intended to indefinitely continue. Several authors contribute articles to them. They also have distinct titles. At the end of the year, back issues are sent to the bindery to be bound into volumes and stocked in the section for researchers on varied disciplines. This section can also classify and catalogue periodical materials to ease work done by the Cataloguing Department.

As the name implies, this sixth section houses material about Sierra Leone. Materials in this collection are difficult to weed since they form part of the national bibliography of Sierra Leone. The unit also contains newspapers which are bought daily. This grey literature is unique as the newspaper collection date-back to the 1930s to present day.

The seventh section is located in the Ground Floor of the library and is currently in a room renovated by the United Nations and stocked with computers, printers, photocopiers which are used by students, lecturers and administrative staff. However, this section is managed by a private owner instead of FBC library.

The eighth section is the American Shelve. This is located at the Ground Floor of the library. It was established in July 2007, after a “Memorandum of Understanding” signed by the then U.S. Ambassador and the then Deputy Chancellor of Fourah Bay College. The purpose was to promote public diplomacy of the Embassy of the United States of America in Sierra Leone, hence its name the “American Shelves.” Materials housed in this collection are purely American. Collections include books, CD-ROM, Posters, Periodicals/magazines and other programming materials of the Embassy of the United States of America in Sierra Leone. The American Corner has a television set. The book collection consists of materials in history, literature, education, health, economics, management, business, culture and law of the United States of America. Funds are usually made available by the Public Affairs Sections of the United States Embassy in Sierra Leone to the library to undertake joint sensitisation programmes on relevant issues to society such as black history day, democracy, human right, the girl child and “Ebola”, in which keynote speakers are either provided by the Embassy or the library from local professionals with regards the topic of discussion. Video shows are also organised.

The ninth section is located at the Lower Ground Floor and is the economic nerve centre of the library. Paperbacks with less than fifty pages are treated as pamphlets and are processed and stocked in boxes. Materials with fifty pages and above are regarded as books and sent to the bindery for hard covers. Customers desirous of using this section of the library must observe the following procedures:

  • Secure proforma invoice for binding work;
  • Settle invoice at Librarian’s office and collect receipt for amount paid;
  • Collect bound work from bindery on presentation of a valid receipt;
  • Departmental jobs from FBC should be accompanied by an order from respective heads of departments and paid for in cash or cheque;
  • All cheques should be made payable to Fourah Bay College.

Other kinds of jobs done in the bindery include rebinding dissertations/theses, paperbacks, newspapers, engagement Bibles, ledgers and gold lettering. However this sections is limited with basic bindery equipment and facilities to bind and rebind the library materials.


It is clear that Fourah Bay College Library has some challenges in managing the library. Some of the challenges are as thus: inadequate funding and current materials; inadequate sitting accommodation; inadequate trained and qualified staff; and inadequate provision of photocopying machines. Of the varied challenges, the major being the inadequate sitting accommodation and the inadequate funding and non-current materials.

The current state of Information Management amidst the new management at Fourah Bay College is that there is regular power supply which is obtained from three (3) sources, that is, the Electricity Distribution and Supply Authority (EDSA); a stand-by generator which is shared with the main administrative building; and a solar panel which only supplies the lower and ground floors of the library. This has a lot of challenges for the library as the other floors are presently out of electricity supply as the entire building is under refurbishment. There is availability of Internet connectivity via hotspots, though its strength is very weak only users with sophisticated systems can have access to it. The developments of ICTs have offered Fourah Bay Library existing and challenging opportunity that requires it to respond positively in all facets of their services and functions if they are to remain relevant in the new information age.


I recommend that:

  • the university management should provide more sitting accommodation by building more library structures.
  • University should employ more trained and qualified professional librarians or immediately promote the existing staff that have already gone through the librarianship training;
  • the university should provide more funds so that the old material be replace the currents ones;
  • Sierra Leone Collection which hold a significance number of grey literature should be digitised and create online database that should be access by researchers. The bindery section should also be provided with modern machines for printing and binding books on reasonable cost as is the income generating section of library;
  • the internet connectivity should be stronger that the existing one;
  • electricity power supply should be continuous;
  • lecturers-library staff relationship should be strong in selecting library materials base on the college curriculum; and
  • disaster management plan should be provided in case any fire outbreak or flooding.


It is evident that Fourah Bay College Library over the years has been crippling with inadequate trained and qualified library professional due to aging librarian crisis. The remaining professional staff are not promoted immediately after retirement of a retiree staff because of excessive bureaucracy/protocol in the administration process. Thus the trained and experienced staff had to wait for years or satisfy certain academic bench marks before they are promoted.

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5.5 Strategies for a Presentation with Magic

Jun 10 2023 Published by admin under Uncategorized

Everyone loves magic because it is fun and entertaining. But, the trick isn’t the most important part of the presentation, the patter is.

The patter is the script that you must use to keep your audience engaged while you perform your magic. If you can create a humorous story that will capture the attention of your audience and tie the tricks together at the same time; you will have a successful presentation. The real entertainment is in the story not the tricks. So, decide which tricks you enjoy and build a story around them that will entertain young and old.

Here are 5 strategies for preparing your magic presentation.

#1 Develop Your Patter

Sit down and create a script that is humorous, entertaining and fresh. The newer your material the more entertaining you will be. If you can’t think of anything completely new, take something old and give it a new twist.

#2 Be Choosy

Select the magic tricks you love the most. If you love what you do you will practice more often and be a better performer. No one can do all tricks extremely well, so be choosy.

#3 You Must Practice

Memorize your patter and incorporate your tricks into the story. Then practice, practice and practice again until you have a smooth presentation.

Rehearse your magic presentation before you show it to anyone. If you perform without sufficient rehearsal, the trick will fail and you’ll reveal your secret. If you ruin a trick in front of an audience, don’t apologize just move on.

#4 Keep Your Secrets

Do not disclose how you did a magic trick to your friends; regardless of how insistent they are. You will lose the fun of doing the tricks once you have shared them.

#5 Never Repeat a Trick

Do not perform the same magic trick over again. When your friends ask you to perform the trick again, it implies that they were tricked that time, and they will try to observe your actions next time. Performing magic tricks is no longer fun if your audience are . Thus, as soon as you finish a magic trick, pretend that you are surprised.

#5.5 Video Tape Yourself

Always consider how your audience will perceive your magic presentation. It is important to understand your audience so you can make a connection with them. So, video tape your performance and watch it. Listen to your pater, watch your tricks and notice how it will look and sound to your audience. If it sounds awkward fix it.

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